Tempco Blog articles

Green data center with reduced environmental impact and TCOIL exchangers

The rapid and continuous evolution of AI technologies, 5G networks and high performance computing (HPC) systems require the availability of increasingly efficient and high-performing data centers to meet the growing demand.

The growth of data centers therefore drives the demand for more efficient cooling technologies, among which are the innovative liquid cooling or immersion cooling solutions. A prestigious Italian example is the recent Green Data Center inaugurated last April at the University of Pisa, which doubled the computing capacity by adopting latest generation technologies and cutting-edge liquid cooling solutions, which made it possible to increase the energy efficiency of the infrastructure.

Heat exchangers play a key role in server cooling systems in data centers. In particular, Tempco TCOIL immersion exchangers can offer customized solutions that can be integrated with existing cooling systems. In fact, they can be used to optimize the liquid cooling of data centers, such as in applications that exploit Vertiv’s Liebert® XDU or the HyperCool by Zutacore solution, both implemented at the Pisa University’s Green Data Center, using TCOIL immersion exchangers in free cooling, immersed in rivers, lakes or basins near data centers facilities.

Tempco scambiatori a immersione TCOIL raffreddamento a liquido green data center AI HPC 5G

Tempco scambiatori a immersione TCOIL raffreddamento a liquido green data center

Tempco scambiatori a immersione TCOIL raffreddamento a liquido green data center free cooling

CO2 refrigeration for a more sustainable conditioning

Tempco has recently supplied of a quantity of CO2 exchangers for an important customer operating in the district heating and cooling technologies sector, committed to provide sustainable and innovative solutions for heating and air conditioning.

In this context, a highly innovative technology involves the use of CO2 as a refrigerant, replacing traditional refrigerant fluids, also helping to comply with new regulations for refrigeration applications aimed at reducing the environmental impact of the sector. CO2 is in fact a natural resource, available in the atmosphere but also as a waste product in numerous industrial processes. In this regard, rapidly growing are the technologies that ensure the capture, storage and use of CO2, called CCS or CCUS (Carbon Capture and Storage and Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage).

The properties of CO2 in fact make this gas a renewable resource that offers a high rate of heat transfer efficiency, which also increases the safety of applications in the event of leaks within the plants and at the same time guarantees a high potential for emission reduction, with a value of Global Warming Potential equal to 1.

However, in the compression, condensation and evaporation cycles of CO2 it is necessary to work with very high operating pressures, which reach up to 140 bar. A field that opens up new application perspectives for Tempco special brazed exchangers, which thanks to the particular brazing cycle are able to withstand very high working pressures.

Tempco scambiatori T Plate B C refrigerazione CO2

Hybrid propulsion, electronics on board and cooling for Baglietto luxury yachts

From water to energy, Italian luxury yacht designer Baglietto brings boating into the green transition on the wave of electrification and hydrogen. A revolution in which Tempco is also proudly involved thanks to the collaboration with Baglietto, not only in the Baglietto Bzero project, which uses green hydrogen as the main source of energy for zero-emission navigation (a power unit prototype is currently being tested in port), but also thanks to hybrid electric propulsion, with the aim of implementing sustainability in navigation and the maritime sector.

The video below takes us into an exclusive tour of the new T52 Hydrid Luxury model by Baglietto, a yacht with a revolutionary design in which, in addition to the Italian style details, it is also possible to marvel at the cutting-edge technological equipment. It really feels like entering the control cabin of Star Trek, but we are in the cockpit of the yacht, with advanced electronic instruments on board that control the propulsion systems, touchscreen monitoring panels and large screens with the electrical, radar and AIS (Automatic identification system) to check the navigation status.

Tempco raffreddamento elettronica di potenza yacht Baglietto T52 hybrid

There is a huge amount of on-board electronics, even in the engine room where we are taken towards the end of the video, and which requires properly engineered cooling systems. The foray allows to appreciate the characteristics of the yacht’s hybrid diesel/electric propulsion, which uses two electric motors allowing navigation in hybrid or full electric mode.

At minute 42.40, we then see the Tempco thermoregulation units installed on board, dedicated to cooling the electric power drives (such as electric motors and power inverters).


What kind of heat exchangers in hydrogen applications

Plate heat exchangers and hydrogen. Everybody’s talking about hydrogen ultimately, in every field. That’s because hydrogen could be a valid powertrain and energy source for the next sustainable future. Clearly we are speaking of green hydrogen.

And so let’s talk about cooling, heating, thermoregulation and thermostatation applications of hydrogen, usually cooling tasks, using plate heat exchangers.
The hydrogen molecule is a ‘wise’ one. It’s a very small molecule that can pass through anything, and so a very high care is required to ensure the sealing.

First of all, let’s say that usually hydrogen is treated at very low temperatures in order to ensure its storage, with very high pressure levels. Therefore, exchangers having a wide working temperature range are required and as well a large working pressure range. Typically these can be plate heat exchangers.
As seen before in other videos in our Tempco YouTube channel, the PCHE, printed circuit heat exchangers, made using the innovative diffusion bonding technology, are the ideal solutions for these kind of applications. Especially when pressures involved are very high.

But there is also a series of other applications that can be achieved with traditional plate heat exchangers, similar to the brazed plate exchangers type. Similar because in fact they need to have a bunch of peculiar characteristics in order to withstand higher pressures. In Tempco we offer a series of brazed plate exchangers employed for CO2 applications that can withstand 140 bar of working pressure level which are also very good for hydrogen technologies. Clearly, employed at certain pressure and temperature levels.

Surely the subject deserves a more in depth and broader discussion, but we want to trigger your comments to see if there is an interest in it, in order to go more in depth even discussing the various types of heat exchangers.

Heat exchangers, hydrogen, cooling and fuel cells

The development of solutions engineered to ensure an efficient cooling in hydrogen fuel cell applications is emblematic of Tempco’s green commitment supporting renewables and aimed at accelerating the energy transition in industry. A commitment that therefore brings to an even more advanced level the study of solutions aimed at maximizing energy efficiency in thermal energy management and thermoregulation in the process industry, also embracing new applications for a more sustainable mobility.

In this regard, the article dedicated to Tempco in last January’s issue of ICP magazine deals with PCHE (printed circuit heat exchangers). These special brazed plate heat exchangers are obtained thanks to an innovative solid-state diffusion welding process, called diffusion bonding, that makes it possible to obtain very compact heat exchangers, with very high efficiency and characterized by extreme robustness of the plate pack. PCHE exchangers are therefore able to meet the challenging application requirements of technologies that exploit hydrogen in fuel cells, being able to work at extreme pressure and temperature levels, in a range that goes from cryogenic temperatures at -250° C up to +400° C, or even higher using very particular alloys.

Regardless of the type of electrolysis technology employed, Tempco can therefore provide high-value thermal solutions for electrolysis equipment, electrolytes, working fluid cooling and heat recovery tasks. An interesting ongoing project involves the implementation of these exchangers for the cooling of power electronics in the zero-emission yacht Bzero built by Baglietto, which uses fuel cell technology with green hydrogen obtained from sea water.

Tempco scambiatori idrogeno ICP gennaio

articolo Tempco scambiatori idrogeno ICP gennaio

Why and how do heat exchangers get dirty

One of the main problems related to heat exchangers is the fouling. As already seen in other videos in our Tempco YouTube channel, when designing a heat exchanger the fouling factor must be considered, or anyway an over sizing of the thermal transfer surfaces in order to take account of the possible scaling of a heat exchanger.

Clearly it depends on the kind of fluids that flow inside it: having heat exchangers employed with clean fluids there are obviously no fouling issues and. Thus, it is possible to size the exchanger very precisely on the project working conditions, not considering too much the possible fouling effect and therefore a possible reduction of the thermal transfer surface.

Instead, when fluids involved can be dirty then it is mandatory to carefully consider the fouling factor. The fouling level depends on the kind of fluids employed. There are several kinds of fouling: there is fouling involving a scaling effect, when there are fluids that get stuck onto thermal transfer surfaces. And this is probably the worst example. Otherwise, there can be fouling due to solid particles on the fluids circulating inside the exchanger. When fluids with suspended solid particles are involved there is a series of strategies to carry out in order to avoid fouling. On top of them there is filtration. Clearly, filters represent a bottleneck for thermal transfer because they reduce the flow rate of water, they involve pressure drops and thus requiring a higher pumping pressure, but they surely protect the exchanger from the fouling.


Obviously, there are even suspended solid particles that can be very small that are challenging even for a good filter. For example when using a kind of water with quite heavy suspended solid particles, such as sand, metallic swarf or fine dust. What is possible to do is to try to reduce the internal fouling of the exchanger, and we are speaking about plate heat exchangers, letting the fluid in from the bottom. In this way, the heavy particles tend to deposit on the bottom of the nozzle, and therefore not fouling all the plate, allowing to extend the maintenance periods.

Otherwise, fouling can be due to scaling, and let’s think about limestone, for example, or resins, as well about greasy products getting stuck on thermal transfer surfaces of plates. In this case, the only possible solution is a washing intervention that can be done in different ways: for example with a cleaning in place, or even dismantling the exchanger for a more accurate cleaning using a pressure washer, a brush or some washing cleansers.

Water cooling and air cooling for heat dissipation in current rectifiers

Current rectifiers are essential components in modern electrical systems, responsible for converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). However, the process can generate excess heat that must be dissipated in order to maintain their efficiency and reliability.

Generally, air cooling is the most common solution to dissipate the heat generated by power rectifiers. This method uses the principle of heat transfer through direct contact with ambient air. In this case, fans and heat sinks are key components. The fans draw in ambient air, which passes through the heat sinks, thus removing excess heat generated by the rectifier.

An air cooling system entails both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of air cooling are:

  • Economical: air cooling systems are generally cheaper to implement than water-based ones.
  • Simple maintenance: maintenance of air systems is often easier, since it does not involve liquids and complex piping.

On the other hand, air cooling has these disadvantages:

  • Efficiency limit: air cooling systems can reach an efficiency limit under heavy load situations, limiting their ability to dissipate large amounts of heat.
  • Noise levels: fans can produce noise, which may be an undesirable factor in noise-sensitive environments.

A valid alternative for dissipating the heat generated by rectifiers therefore consists of water cooling. This is a more advanced technology that uses liquid coolant to absorb and transfer heat away from power rectifiers. This method involves a piping system, a pump and radiator that allow liquid to circulate through the system, cooling the rectifier.

Tempco raffreddamento ad acqua efficienza dissipazione calore raddrizzatori di corrente
Advantages of water cooling:

  • High efficiency: water cooling is generally more efficient than air cooling, allowing to handle more intense workloads.
  • Quiet operations: unlike fans, water cooling can be noticeably quieter, providing an ideal solution for noise-sensitive environments.

The disadvantages of water cooling are the following:

  • Expensive: implementing water cooling systems is usually more expensive due to the complexity of the components involved.
  • Complex maintenance: water systems require more careful and periodic maintenance, especially to prevent problems related to corrosion and liquid leaks.

In fact, the choice between air and water cooling for power rectifiers therefore depends on various factors, including the operating environment, the power capacity of the system and the available budget. While air cooling offers an economical and easy-to-maintain approach, water cooling stands out for its high efficiency, especially in labor-intensive and demanding environments. Ultimately, the decision will depend on the specific needs of the electricity system involved.

Tempco raffreddamento ad acqua raddrizzatori di corrente

In case of water cooling, by placing an exchanger with a dedicated system, maintenance problems due to limescale are eliminated. An interesting application here is related to the modern needs of hydrogen production systems through electrolysis.

Full stainless steel thermoregulation in food and pharma

New technological partnership in Tempco with an important manufacturer specialized in the engineering and construction of stainless steel equipment and systems, intended for the production, preparation and storage of products in the food and pharmaceutical sectors, for the supply of thermoregulation control units.

The collaboration specifically involves the supply of the overall temperature regulation components of the customer’s construction equipment. All the technologies supplied have a full stainless steel finishing for pharma applications, employing plate heat exchangers in full stainless steel construction.

Tempco termoregolazione full inox pharma food

Tempco termoregolazione full inox pharma alimentare

Tempco termoregolazione full inox pharma alimentare rendering 3D

3D rendering of thermoregulating unit in full stainless steel finishing for pharma production

Tempco termoregolazione full inox pharma food rendering 3D

3D rendering of full stainless steel thermoregulating unit for pharma and food production processes

Hydrogen for the future of clean energy, the patent activity worldwide

A new report by the International Energy Agency and the European Patent Office offers a very interesting overview of patent activity on hydrogen industry in the world. Research and technological innovation on hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a fundamental piece on the path to energy transition, in search of sustainable and renewable forms of energy for the future of the world economy. A perspective in which Tempco is also very much committed, working to develop innovative technological solutions for example in the marine sector, for zero emission yachting, as well as in hydrogen production and fuel systems though electrolysis, thanks to the use of innovative PCHE exchangers.

The study therefore finds that innovation in the hydrogen industry is very active in a variety of areas, from the production by electrolysis of water to the development of graphene tanks, from fuel cell technology in aircraft motors and beyond to cryogenic storage of hydrogen, and up to the reduction of iron ore.

Idrogeno brevetti mondo innovazione EPO IEA transizione green Tempco

The report covers all three main areas of the hydrogen industry, namely hydrogen production and supply, storage, distribution and transformation, and final applications. In the period 2011-2020, approximately half of the international patent families (IPFs) were linked to the production of hydrogen, while the other IPFs were divided between final applications of hydrogen and technologies for its storage, distribution and transformation. Leading the activities by number of patents is Europe, with 28% of all IPFs in the period considered, with technological advantages transversal to all three segments of the hydrogen value chain, with 11% of patents deposited in Germany and 6% in France. Second is Japan, with 24% of patents, followed by the United States, which contributed 20% of published patents. However, while Europe and Japan recorded an annual average increase of 6.2% and 4.5% respectively over the decade, the United States is the only country to have recorded a slowdown. Patent activity in Korea and China is still not very significant, but they have shown the highest growth rates, with average annual growth of 12.2% and 15.2% respectively, with a strong focus on emerging end-use technologies of hydrogen in the case of Korea.

Idrogeno brevetti mondo innovazione EPO IEA transizione green Tempco trend attività

The report also makes a distinction between patent activity related to the improvement of already existing technologies and that related to emerging technologies that aim to use hydrogen as an alternative source against climate change. Innovations in existing technologies came mostly from industries in the chemical sector, focusing on the production and management of hydrogen, with diversification into emerging carbon capture usage & storage (CCUS) technologies. Among the most active, there are companies such as Air Liquide, Linde, Air Products and BASFPatents in emerging technologies linked to the energy transition are mainly coming from companies in the automotive sector, with companies such as Toyota, Hyundai, Honda and Panasonic, focused above all on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis and final applications using fuel cells.

Dehumidification of biogas, Tempco in the Biomass Guide 2024 of EIOM

A new content is online with the Tempco article for the EIOM circuit related to applications for the treatment of biogas, published in the 2024 Biomethane, Biogas and Biomass guide.

The treatment and dehumidification of biogas is an area in which Tempco is very present, with many plants supplied to contribute to the efficient development of the biogas sector from a green and sustainability perspective. Biogas is in fact a source of renewable energy which is obtained from the anaerobic decomposition of biomass, such as agricultural and food waste, industrial waste and livestock waste. Biogas therefore represents an important alternative source for energy production, which allows the recovery and valorisation of waste materials contributing to circular economy and at the same time helping reducing greenhouse gases.

As a renewable and green energy source, biogas can therefore be used for power generation, to produce heat or power vehicles, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contributing to energy security.

The article describes some practical applications of systems and solutions for biogas treatment realized by Tempco. In fact, the treatment of biogas consists in the dehumidification of the biogas itself, an essential step to reduce the humidity present in the gas aimed at improving its quality and its usability in endothermic engines and energy production. The technology mainly used is that of compression refrigeration, among the most widespread and effective at this purpose.

The process involves several key components:

Compressor: the raw biogas is compressed to increase its pressure and reduce its volume.
Exchanger to achieve cooling and dehumidification: the compressed gas is cooled causing humidity condensation.
Condensate separator: the condensed water is then separated from the dehumidified gas.

Finally, the dehumidified biogas can be further treated to remove residual solid or liquid impurities.

Tempco Biogas raffreddamento compressione Guida biomasse EOIM 1

Tempco Biogas raffreddamento compressione Guida biomasse EOIM 2