Nozzles and water distribution in cooling towers

New On-the-road video today, back to Cooling towers, and we’re talking about the components of cooling towers in particular.
Let’s focus on the water distribution system on filling packs on evaporative towers, that ensure the thermal exchange in the system. Package towers usually are equipped with a pipe distribution system connected to nozzles to spray water on filling packs.

Focusing on nozzles, there are nozzles of various shape and size, depending on the load of water to distribute. Nozzles with very low pressure drop and a good distribution pattern are usually employed, and at the same time they must be no-clogging in order to avoid the deposition of scaling and debris contained in the circulating water.

Materials of nozzles can be various, there are plastic nozzles but also made in metals, usually stainless steel, often employed in huge concrete cooling towers.

Big concrete cooling towers don’t have a pressured distribution system, having open channels leveraging water gravity distribution. Thus, nozzles employed here have bigger size and even lower pressure drop, in order to ensure that the distribution system can work even with very low pressures of the water flow.

This is not the case of package towers, where incoming water has often high pressures that is suitable to be reduced to avoid a bad and irregular distribution pattern.

There are indeed, at last, also special nozzles that provide a three phase distribution, ensuring an ideal water distribution on the filling pack, essential to guarantee the best cooling efficiency of the evaporative tower.
Ventilation and the kind of filling packs will soon be object of further videos.